Tuesday, July 5, 2016

Have you ever wondered how planning commissions take decisions?

My Friends, just before we get into everything ... I must give you the overview of what we're covering in this piece today.

These 3 stories detailed out below arrive from three different authors, who arrive from three very different perspectives, and no love is lost between these guys. To say they do not get along is a serious understatement!

Now, let's get started!

My highly favored visitors! 1.5 inch seat belt webbing

is on my brain, and today I (Roger Howard, of course!) bring you yet another very-nearly-brilliant post on material polyester my motive being to serve you with some awesome reads and connect you with various great materials.

And you've probably never witnessed one such as this ... because while it comes to nylon-competitors, these author show up from very divergent philosophical arenas.

I'm talking about more than just ill-tempered debates. The guys in this circumstance are NOT colleagues. In fact, you'll soon see exactly how their styles are very different, and suit their own purposes.

I tuned into this on the grounds that one of the authors was my mentor back then when I initially got out of school. So if quite possibly you have enthusiasm in political gossip and insider news, then connect with me on Linkedin and I'll share all the gory details.

That's right, high stakes, high tension, business situations focused on industrial drive articles like this:

Article #1: History Of Fibre Development
By Gaurav Doshi
Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Gaurav_Doshi/56873

Different kinds of fibres are available now-a-days. These fibres are mainly divided into two categories natural and man made. They are also categorized by the generations as they were produced in the different years and known as first generation, second generation, third generation or fourth generation fibres.

The fibres generated first were the natural fibres. In this category cotton, wool, silk and all other animal and plant fibres are included. These fibres were introduced first 4000 years back but their uses were continued till 1940. All these fibres are known as first generation fibres. Very delicate handling is needed for these fibres. Fibres like silks and cottons have not good resistance against moths, wrinkles, wear and washings. So discovery of durable fibres was a greater need and about one century ago first synthesized fibres Rayon/Nylon were produced. These fibres are cheaper in comparison with natural ones. The development of these new fibres opened up fibre application to the various fields like medicine, aeronautics, home furnishing and modern apparels. Fibre engineers produced many new fibres by combining new synthetic fibres with the natural ones.

In the year 1664 the first attempt was done to make artificial fibre, but success was achieved after 200 years only. A Swiss chemist Audemars first patented artificial fibre in England in 1855. He produced that by dissolving the fibrous inner bark of the mulberry tree and produced cellulose by modifying it chemically. He made threads from the solution by dripping needle in the solution and then drawing them out. His attempt was good but he could not copy the silkworm. He had done experiments with the solution similar to Audemars solution.

French chemist Hilaire de Chardonnet was the first one to produce artificial silk commercially in the year 1889. Later on he was known as father of rayon industry because he was the first to produce rayon commercially on large scales.

All the attempts of producing artificial silk failed till the year 1900 but in the year 1910 Samuel Courtaulds and Co. Ltd, formed the American Viscose Company and did production of rayon.

Arthur D. Little of Boston made a film from acetate which is a cellulosic product in the year 1983 and in the year 1910 Henry Dreyfus and Camille made toilet articles and motion picture film from acetate in Switzerland. In the year 1924 Celanese Company made fibre from the acetate and it was the very first use of acetate in the textile industry. At that time the demand of rayon was high because it was available on the half of the price than raw silk to the textile manufacturers so U.S. rayon production flourished to meet those higher demands.

About Nylon

The miracle fibre called Nylon was invented in the September 1931 at the research laboratory of DuPont Company. They saw giant molecules of these polymers when they were working on Nylon '66' and Nylon '6'.

Nylon is completely synthetic fibre obtained from petrochemicals and is very different from Rayon and Acetate which are made up of cellulosic material of plants. The discovery of Nylon started a new era of manufactured fibres.

A change in life style

In the year 1939 commercial production of nylon was started by DuPont. In the very beginning on the experimental basis they used nylon in parachute fabric, in women's hosiery and in sewing thread. Nylon stockings were firstly visible to the public at the San Francisco Exposition in February 1939.

At the times of war, Asian silk was replaced by nylon in parachutes. The other uses of Nylon are in military supplies, ponchos, tyres, ropes, tents and in the high grade paper to make U.S. currency. At the time of war cotton was the most commonly used fibre and its uses were more then 80% than any other fibres. Another 20% is shared by wool and other manufactured fibres. August 1945 was the time of ending of war, at that time cotton shares 75% of the fibre market and rise of 15% was seen in the market of manufactured fibres.

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On a geek-scale of 1-10,
this is clearly an 11!

Strangely enough, only a few of you will love this as deeply as do I.
None the less, this is at the deep end of the scientific pool.

Article #2: Polyurethanes History
By Waheed Hassan  
Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Waheed_Hassan/103462

The pioneering work on polyurethane polymers was conducted by Otto Bayer and his coworkers in 1937 at the laboratories of I.G. Farben in Leverkusen, Germany. They recognized that using the polyaddition principle to produce polyurethanes from liquid diisocyanates and liquid polyether or polyester diols seemed to point to special opportunities, especially when compared to already existing plastics that were made by polymerizing olefins, or by polycondensation. The new monomer combination also circumvented existing patents obtained by Wallace Carothers on polyesters.Initially, work focused on the production of fibres and flexible foams. With development constrained by World War II (when PU's were applied on a limited scale as aircraft coating), it was not until 1952 that polyisocyanates became commercially available. Commercial production of flexible polyurethane foam began in 1954, based on toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyester polyols. The invention of these foams (initially called imitation swiss cheese by the inventors) was thanks to water accidentally introduced in the reaction mix.

These materials were also used to produce rigid foams, gum rubber, and elastomers. Linear fibres were produced from hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). The first commercially available polyether polyol, poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol), was introduced by DuPont in 1956 by polymerizing tetrahydrofuran. Less expensive polyalkylene glycols were introduced by BASF and Dow Chemical the following year, 1957. These polyether polyols offered technical and commercial advantages such as low cost, ease of handling, and better hydrolytic stability; and quickly supplanted polyester polyols in the manufacture of polyurethane goods. Another early pioneer in PU's was the Mobay corporation. In 1960 more than 45,000 tons of flexible polyurethane foams were produced. As the decade progressed, the availability of chlorofluoroalkane blowing agents, inexpensive polyether polyols, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) heralded the development and use of polyurethane rigid foams as high performance insulation materials.Rigid foams based on polymeric MDI (PMDI) offered better thermal stability and combustion characteristics than those based on TDI. In 1967, urethane modified polyisocyanurate rigid foams were introduced, offering even better thermal stability and flammability resistance to low density insulation products.

Also during the 1960s, automotive interior safety components such as instrument and door panels were produced by back-filling thermoplastic skins with semi-rigid foam. In 1969, Bayer AG exhibited an all plastic car in Dusseldorf, Germany. Parts of this car were manufactured using a new process called RIM, Reaction Injection Molding. RIM technology uses high-pressure impingement of liquid components followed by the rapid flow of the reaction mixture into a mold cavity. Large parts, such as automotive fascia and body panels, can be molded in this manner. Polyurethane RIM evolved into a number of different products and processes. Using diamine chain extenders and trimerization technology gave poly(urethane urea), poly(urethane isocyanurate), and polyurea RIM. The addition of fillers, such as milled glass, mica, and processed mineral fibres gave arise to RRIM, reinforced RIM, which provided improvements in flexural modulus (stiffness) and thermal stability. This technology allowed production of the first plastic-body automobile in the United Sates, the Pontiac Fiero, in 1983. Further improvements in flexural modulus were obtained by incorporating preplaced glass mats into the RIM mold cavity, also known as SRIM, or structural RIM. Starting in the early 1980s, water-blown microcellular flexible foam was used to mold gaskets for panel and radial seal air filters in the automotive industry. Since then, increasing energy prices and the desire to eliminate PVC plastisol from automotive applications have greatly increased market share. Costlier raw materials are offset by a significant decrease in part weight and in some cases, the elimination of metal end caps and filter housings.

Highly filled polyurethane elastomers, and more recently unfilled polyurethane foams are now used in high-temperature oil filter applications. Polyurethane foam (including foam rubber) is often made by adding small amounts of volatile materials, so-called blowing agents, to the reaction mixture. These simple volatile chemicals yield important performance characteristics, primarily thermal insulation. In the early 1990s, because of their impact on ozone depletion, the Montreal Protocol led to the greatly reduced use of many chlorine-containing blowing agents, such as trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11). Other haloalkanes, such as the hydrochlorofluorocarbon 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b), were used as interim replacements until their phase out under the IPPC directive on greenhouse gases in 1994 and by the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) directive of the EU in 1997 (See: Haloalkanes). By the late 1990s, the use of blowing agents such as carbon dioxide, pentane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa) became more widespread in North America and the EU, although chlorinated blowing agents remained in use in many developing countries.

Building on existing polyurethane spray coating technology and polyetheramine chemistry, extensive development of two-component polyurea spray elastomers took place in the 1990s. Their fast reactivity and relative insensitivity to moisture make them useful coatings for large surface area projects, such as secondary containment, manhole and tunnel coatings, and tank liners. Excellent adhesion to concrete and steel is obtained with the proper primer and surface treatment. During the same period, new two-component polyurethane and hybrid polyurethane-polyurea elastomer technology was used to enter the marketplace of spray-in-place load bed liners. This technique for coating pickup truck beds and other cargo bays creates a durable, abrasion resistant composite with the metal substrate, and eliminates corrosion and brittleness associated with drop-in thermoplastic bed liners. The use of polyols derived from vegetable oils to make polyurethane products began garnishing attention beginning around 2004, partly due to the rising costs of petrochemical feedstocks and partially due to an enhanced public desire for environmentally friendly green products. One of the most vocal supporters of these polyurethanes made using natural oil polyols is the Ford Motor Company.

Article #3: Fabrics Used to Make Material in Today's Textile Industry - Silk
By Jeffrey Ware
Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jeffrey_Ware/146404

Choosing the fabric your clothing is made with is important. This choice can make the difference in the look, comfort, durability, or practicality of the purpose of the particular article of clothing. The choice of fabrics is never more important that the clothes you wear every day at work. Your work uniform must be comfortable yet durable. It must be stylish yet practical. The average person will spend more time wearing their uniform than any other article of clothing with maybe the exception of sleep clothing. The fabric your uniform is made from is important and with today's fabrics you have a wider choice than ever.

Every fabric used to manufacture clothing today has its own characteristics and uses. When choosing clothing as important as your uniform, it is important that you understand the characteristics of the different fabrics. This is the first in a series of articles where we will explore the different fabrics and manufacturing process of common fabrics.

We will discuss fabrics such as cotton, wool, nylon, polyester and many other natural and synthetic fabric materials. Information will be presented about the history, manufacturing methods, characteristics, and uses of the different fabrics. Information concerning the cares of fabrics will also be presented.

This is the second in my series of fabric characteristics (the first was about cotton) and again we will go way back to the beginning of another natural fabric, silk. Silk dates back as far as cotton as a material in which clothing and material were made from. Silk was a material that separated the common man from the elite population of early times. Evan today, silk material is commonly found used by the upper class of society.


The exact history of silk is somewhat of a mystery. Historians say that silk production, called Sericulture, originated in China 10,000 years ago. However ancient Chinese legends contribute the origination of Sericulture to the Chinese empress Si Ling Chi who ruled in 2,600 BC.

The story goes that one day Empress Si Ling Chi was sitting under a Mulberry tree in her palace garden drinking some tea. A cocoon from a silkworm fell into her cup of hot tea. She watched as the silk fibers of the cocoon began to unravel in the hot liquid. She became recognized as the goddess of silk worms.

The production of silk slowly developed into manufacturing process in China by the 14th century. Silk production became a cornerstone of the Chinese economy where the silk was used for musical instruments, fishing lines and bowstrings. Silk was also used to pay the civil servants in China as a reward from the rulers. The Chinese also used ilk in foreign trade exchanging it for spices and jewels brought from India.

The Chinese kept the secret of silk production to themselves for more than two thousand years. It was so guarded that a penalty of death was placed on anyone found guilty of smuggling silkworm eggs, cocoons, or mulberry seeds out of the country. But buy the year of 200 BC the secret of silk had spread to Korea and then slowly throughout the rest of Asia and India.

It wasn't until the 13th century that silk production reached Italy when Persia sent 2000 skilled silk weavers. Those led to the production of silk throughout Europe. Even though silk production has spread worldwide, China is still the largest producer of the world's silk today.

Manufacturing process:

The manufacturing process of silk begins with the silkworm its natural ability to produce silk fiber and spin their cocoon with it. There are basically two types of silkworms. One is the silkworm that feeds on oak leaves and produce Tusha silk. The other, mulberry silk moth, produces the highest quality silk called Bombyx mori. This silkworm feeds on the leaves of the mulberry tree. The silkworms spin a cocoon that contains an average of 300-400 meters of silk fiber. It takes up to 5500 silkworms to produce 2lbs of raw silk fibers.

The production of the silkworm's cocoon to make silk filament is called sericulture. Sericulture is done under controlled conditions and environments on silk farms. The silk worms are raised from eggs and allowed to go through its entire life cycle. The optimal time for harvesting silk is at the cocoon stage.

The cocoons are harvested and sent to the factory called a filature. Here the cocoons are unwound into silk strands and collected on skeins. The operation consists of four separate operations:

o Sorting of Cocoons; Cocoons are sorted according to color, size, shape and texture.

o Softening; the sorted cocoons are immersed in a series of hot and cold solutions to soften the fibers to permit unwinding.

o Reeling the filament; consist of unwinding the cocoons and twisting the strands together to make a silk thread.

o Bailing; The silk thread is wrapped onto skeins and packed into small bundles called books. The books are put into bales and shipped to the silk mills where it is woven into material.

Silk is a protein fiber which gives silk material its characteristics. Silk has a high tensile strength but won't stand up to heavy use or abrasions. Silk will become brittle when exposed to sunlight, high alkalinity, acid, or oily soils will breakdown silk fibers. The appearance of silk depends on the size of the silk yarn used to make the fabric. Large yarn may make the material appear more like cotton or a synthetic. Small well refined yarn will give the silk material the silky feel and look we expect.


Silk is still today the primary material used to make our finest outerwear. Luxury clothing including fine silk suits and evening gowns are made of the finest silk material.

Other uses of silk material include:

o Women's and men's lingerie because of silk's softness and brilliant colours.
o Silk laces and tulles: Ideal for bridal gowns and veils
o Hosiery
o Scarves
o Ties
o Decorative articles such as bows and ribbons
o Furnishing and upholstery
o Insulation


For the most part silk garments should be dry cleaned to prevent damage of a breakdown of the fibers. Certain silks may be hand washed and line dried or tumble dried with low heat. Silk garments are also known as the wash and wear material because it is resistant to wrinkling.
Silk material is prone to moth attacks especially when in storage. Silk garments should be stored appropriately. They may be wrapped in a cotton fabric or other breathable fabric. Silk should not be stored in plastic or other sealed containers that can trap moister. This may lead to mildew and yellowing.

Chlorine bleach should never be used. This will cause the fabric to yellow and break down.
I sincerely hoped you enjoyed this article. Please look forward to my next article where we will discuss a synthetic fiber - polyester.

My friends wasn't that a remarkable read?

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